Night Sky Photography Tutorial

Many people photograph during the golden hours around sunrise and sunset, but after the sun goes down a whole new world of photography opens up and the possibilities are endless…


Have you seen amazing photos of night skies full of stars and wondered how the photo was taken? Would you like to capture the beauty of the stars and the galaxy yourself? Would you like to photograph the night sky?


It’s actually surprisingly simple.

Night's End Night Sky Tutorial 1

This free tutorial will focus on Night Sky Star Photography and will help you to take these shots by explaining the techniques, tips and tricks used for amazing night sky photos. I will explain the equipment you need and the best way to choose a location to photograph from.


When photographing the stars you can choose either to show motion (star trails), or capture the stars as pinpoints of light. This tutorial is designed to help you with the latter.


What do you need?

  • Camera with manual mode (ideally a DSLR)
  • Tripod
  • A dark night
  • A dark location


Not essential but useful

  • Wide angle, fast lens (a lens with a large maximum aperture)
  • Timer/ remote release
  • Lens hood


The 500 rule

  • Some people call this the 600 rule, but I find using 500 is more conservative and will get you great sharp results.
  • How does it work? Divide 500 by the focal length of your lens. That will give you the time in seconds that you can use as your slowest shutter speed before you start noticing star trails forming.
  • For example, using a full frame camera and 16mm lens (500 ÷ 16= 31 seconds). This means that exposure times up to 31 seconds will have minimal star trail. For crop sensors you will need to correct for the sensor size first (ie. multiply the focal length by 1.5 for Nikon, or 1.6 for Canon). So a 16mm focal length on a Canon crop sensor 16 x 1.6= 25.6, then 500 ÷ 25.6= 19 sec maximum exposure time.
  • If you go beyond these maximum exposure times you will start to notice star trails due to movement caused by the rotation of the earth.


Camera Settings for Night Sky Photography

Now there is no one size fits all solution, but for a good start try:

  • Camera Mode– Manual
  • Aperture– choose the widest possible eg f/2.8 or f/4
  • Shutter speed– slowest possible calculated by the 500 rule- often 30 seconds is a good place to start
  • ISO– Minimum possible although this will still have to be quite high (often ISO 2500-5000). Experiment with your camera, increasing ISO will increase digital noise. See what your camera can handle before the image starts to lose too much quality.
  • Image format– RAW is best (see my tutorial RAW vs JPEG for more information on this).
  • White Balance– if you are shooting RAW you can correct the White Balance in post processing. Otherwise you can set a white balance using the Kelvin or “K” setting to get a natural looking white balance in the field. You will need to experiment using trial and error with this.
  • Focal length– Usually wide angles work best (eg 14-20mm) but why not experiment and see what you like!
  • Focus– usually manually focusing to infinity works well, but make sure you take a test shot, refocus slightly if necessary and repeat until your photo is sharp.
  • Ideally you should use a remote release, although the 2 second timer also works well to minimise camera vibration caused by pressing the shutter.
  • Take a trial shot at maximum aperture and the slowest possible shutter speed then vary the ISO until the photo is correctly exposed.


What I use

  • Nikon D800E
  • Nikkor 16-35mm f/4
  • Gitzo Tripod
  • Really Right Stuff BH 55 Ball Head
  • Really Right Stuff L plate for Nikon D800/800E
  • Remote release


Choosing a location

  • For the best night sky photos you need to find dark places that are away from light pollution, smog and cloud
  • For a map of light pollution try this site- Blue Marble Dark Skies Map


The darkest part of the night

  • Your camera will pick up the most detail in the night sky during the darkest part of the night.
  • The darkest part of the night is after Astronomical Twilight ends in the evening and before it begins again the next morning.
  • To work out when this time is, you can use The Photographers Ephemeris. This free app will do all the hard work for you. Just pinpoint your location on the map and read off the time between the end and beginning of Astronomical Twilight (more on this later).
  • The darker the sky, the brighter the stars shine.
  • Also remember to factor in light from the moon- for the best photos of the Milky Way the moon should be at least 1 hour below the horizon.


Finding the Milky Way

  • You can see the Milky Way at night just by looking. If you cannot see the Milky Way with your eyes (after they have adjusted to the dark) you will have trouble capturing it with your camera.
  • Our planet actually sits near the middle of the Milky Way, so in effect the Milky Way surrounds us!

Night Sky Parkes Tutorial


  • It’s easy to be excited by the night sky and forget all about good composition! Including some ground in your photo will help to orientate the scene, while reflective surfaces such as still water will help by reflecting the starlight.





And something more- for those who like extra detail…

  • Once the sun goes down we enter twilight, but there are actually 3 categories of twilight:
  • Civil twilight (brightest)- When terrestrial objects can still be clearly distinguished
  • Nautical twilight– When the horizon can be distinguished (and hence used to measure elevation of the stars for night sky navigation)
  • Astronomical twilight (darkest)- From the end of astronomical twilight at night until the beginning of it the next morning, the night sky is as dark as it gets- a good time to take photos to see the most stars!

Australian Landscape Photography Posters

Australian Landscape Photography Posters are now available for sale. Click here to see our full range of posters.

Summer Days

Posters are:

  • excellent quality and printed on tear and moisture resistant matte paper
  • easy to frame
  • able to be posted within Australia or around the world
  • sent out rolled in a hard cardboard tube for protection
  • an excellent Christmas present– easy to post and uniquely Australian!
  • available either direct from the Andrew Carter Gallery or from our online store

By Andrew Carter

Corporate Gifts

Corporate gifts from Andrew Carter Gallery will set you apart and make a lasting impression. Gifts can be tailored to your individual needs and provide a unique and thoughtful alternative to traditional corporate gifts.

Specialising in Australian landscape photography, corporate gift ideas include:

Whether it’s gracing the walls of a boardroom, office or a private home, a gift from Andrew Carter Gallery is exceptional quality and highly memorable.

A corporate gift from Andrew Carter Gallery is:

  • Uniquely Australian
  • Exclusive and impressive
  • Highest quality
  • Tailored to your needs
  • All framed photos use UV protective acrylic to allow for safe transportation and to ensure the longevity of your photo
  • Easy to order– just call or email to discuss your needs. Framed photos in stock at the gallery and unframed photos can usually be sent within 1-3 business days

Andrew Carter Gallery is based in Mogo on the NSW South Coast and can ship to anywhere in Australia (and most places overseas). So if you are based in Canberra, Sydney, Melbourne or further afield it’s no problem!

To order, or to discuss your corporate gift requirements just call us on 02 4474 5227 or visit our  Contact Us page.

Jervis Bay Sunset header

2014 Calendar is here!

The Andrew Carter Landscape Photography 2014 Calendar has arrived.

Showcasing some of Andrew’s favourite prints from the year, the 2014 Calendar has something for everyone from around our beautiful country.

Calendars are $25 pickup (add $5 for postage and handling within Australia). Calendars can be sent internationally if required.

To buy a calendar just send us an email from our Contact Us page with your information and we will contact you with further details.

Available only while stocks last!

Calendar Available back page Web edit

Andrew Carter Gallery- Mogo NSW

Andrew Carter Landscape Photography is proud to announce the opening of their new photography gallery in Mogo NSW.

The opening of the Andrew Carter Gallery in Mogo marks the culmination of 18 months hard work and has provided the perfect space to showcase Andrew’s fine art landscape photography.

Mogo- located near Batemans Bay on the NSW South Coast- provides the ideal location. Only 2 hours from Canberra and 4 hours from Sydney the area is popular with weekend travellers and holiday makers, and many people have loved viewing photos from the local area.

The gallery in Mogo contains a selection of photos from Andrew Carter’s portfolio and includes framed fine art photos, acrylic face mounted photos, canvas prints and posters.

The Andrew Carter Gallery is located in Shop 7, The Clocktower Arcade, 46 Sydney St (Princes Hwy), Mogo, 2536. Click here for opening hours and further details.

More International Awards

International Pano Awards 2013

Andrew has had more of his photos recognised internationally. In the recent 2013 International Pano Awards Andrew received 14 awards including a Silver Award for “Aqua”.EPA2013 Photo 1 Website edit

Other awarded photos:

Photography Lessons Now Available

I am proud to announce that I am now offering Private Photography Lessons.

Batemans Bay is a beautiful part of the world, with great opportunities for landscape photography. In this area we have some amazing coastlines, wonderful forests tucked in under the escarpment , stunning beaches, and a wide range of wildlife.

I am very excited to have the opportunity to offer photography lessons in this amazing area, and am enjoying sharing some of the magnificent photo locations with other keen photographers.

Batemans Bay is located an easy 2 hour drive from Canberra, and only 4 hours from Sydney, making it a great place for a weekend getaway, and a great place to learn more about your camera and improve your photography!

If you are keen to find out more about these private lessons, check out my “Photography Lessons” page, or “Contact Us” for more details.

What is Landscape Photography?

People often ask me what I do for a living. When I tell them that I am an Australian Landscape Photographer, their response often goes along the line of: “That’s interesting… hang on… whoa, what do you mean? What IS landscape photography?”

Ancient Beginnings Header

So, here are my thoughts on the question:

What is landscape photography?”


Going back in history, landscapes were originally used primarily to fill in the blank space behind a person or scene by painters, and other artists. However as art and photography has evolved, the “background” was seen to have artistic value in and of itself. Today, landscape photography is a very popular pursuit.

Read more…

Just posted a “Behind the Scenes” Guest Post for Florian Breuer

I was recently asked to write a guest post for Florian Breuer on his blog. Florian lives in South Africa, and has some amazing landscape photos from across Africa on his blog. His photography is very popular and he helps a large number of people improve their photos with some simple tips.

A lot of the landscape photos are very different to the countryside we are used to in Australia!

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Florian also has a strong interest in night sky landscape photography, including some amazing shots taken in the Quiver Tree Forest in Namibia at night!

He asked me to write a guest post talking about some of my experiences as an Australian landscape photographer, so I decided to write a “Behind the Scenes” piece looking at how I took the photos “Frozen Dawn” and “Mullimburra Dreaming“.

Read more…

Now on Facebook!

Andrew Carter Landscape Photography is now on Facebook!

“Like” us on Facebook if you would like to:

  • follow recent updates,
  • give feedback on your favourite photos,
  • be the first to know about everything happening at Andrew Carter Landscape Photography
  • and even to have your say about which photos will be put onto the website!

To check out our Facebook page, click here:

We recently took a vote on Facebook to decide which photo people liked best- the top photo has a shutter speed of 2 sec, the bottom photo has a shutter speed of 184 sec.Mullimburra Comparison News2 Read more…